DPTP Glossary 2017


DPTP Glossary 2017

Browse the glossary using this index

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A

Administrative metadata

Administrative metadata comprises both technical metadata and preservation metadata and is generally used for internal management of digital resources.
Source: http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsa/ndsa-glossary.html

Application

Application software (an application) is a set of computer programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_software

Archive

An archive is an accumulation of historical records, or the physical place they are located.

This is the more "traditional" meaning which is usually associated with paper and other analogue materials. But "Archive" means other things in the IT world; see for instance this blog post by Ed Pinsent.

Authenticity

The quality of trustworthiness of a record; the assurance that a record is what it purports to be and has demonstrably not been tampered with or otherwise corrupted.

Source: Adrian Brown, Practical digital preservation. A how-to guide for organizations of any size (2013).

B

Backup

In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying and [archiving] of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Backup

Bitstream

The zeros and ones that make up a data file, the “stream of bits”.

Bitstream preservation

Bitstream preservation is the most basic technical layer of any digital preservation strategy. It could be adopted as the sole layer were the repository to confer responsibility for acquiring file- and representation-level access to future users of the material. This might be acceptable in some circumstances, but is not a reasonable approach to the preservation of personal digital archives, which are likely to be used by readers possessing a wide range of technical knowledge from negligible to expert. Nevertheless, digital archivists must address bitstream preservation as it forms the foundation for all other preservation strategies.
Source: http://www.paradigm.ac.uk/workbook/preservation-strategies/degree-bitstream.html

Born digital

Digital materials which are not intended to have an analogue equivalent, either as the originating source or as a result of conversion to analogue form.This term has been used in the handbook to differentiate them from 1) digital materials which have been created as a result of converting analogue originals; and 2) digital materials, which may have originated from a digital source but have been printed to paper, e.g. some electronic records.
Source: http://www.dpconline.org/advice/preservationhandbook/introduction/definitions-and-concepts

C

Checksum

An algorithmically-computed numeric value for a file or a set of files used to validate the state and content of the file for the purpose of detecting accidental errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. The integrity of the data can be checked at any later time by recomputing the checksum and comparing it with the stored one. If the checksums match, the data was almost certainly not altered.
Source: http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/ndsa/ndsa-glossary.html

D

Data

Computer data is information processed or stored by a computer. This information may be in the form of text documents, images, audio clips, software programs, or other types of data.
At its most rudimentary level, computer data is a bunch of ones and zeros, known as binary data. Because all computer data is in binary format, it can be created, processed, saved, and stored digitally.

Source: http://techterms.com/definition/data


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